1.4. Choosing Your Hardware

The hardware you choose will depend on what features you will use, how much bandwidth you have, and some matters of personal preference (embedded device vs. standard PC). Since m0n0wall is based on FreeBSD 4, most hardware that works with FreeBSD also works with m0n0wall. See the FreeBSD/i386 Hardware Notes for a detailed listing of supported hardware.


The m0n0wall 1.3 releases are based on FreeBSD 6.2-RELEASE. The Hardware Notes for this version is different than the older FreeBSD 4.x versions.

Hardware Reliability

While m0n0wall will run on very old hardware, keep in mind the reliability of older hardware is certainly questionable. If uptime isn't critically important, don't hesitate to use old hardware. If this is in a production business environment, a Soekris or WRAP board could save you some explaining down the road on why your Internet connection went down.

If you are using old hardware, make sure you have a contingency plan should it fail. Keeping a spare machine with your current m0n0wall configuration loaded, ready to be used if necessary, would be a good idea.


For most broadband connections, any 486 or faster will be sufficient. If you have less than 10 Mb of Internet bandwidth (combined upload and download speed), an embedded device like the WRAP or Soekris platforms, or an old 486 will suffice. For 10 Mb up to a full T3 or more, a Pentium II or III PC system, or embedded device like a NexCom is more appropriate. See Chapter 2 of the Users Guide for further details on compatible hardware.

For connections faster than a T3 using many VPN sessions, you will likely want to use a customized version of m0n0wall specifically built for your requirements, and high end Pentium 4, Xeon, or similar hardware. This is beyond the scope of this document.


We recommend 64 MB of RAM minimum. 32 MB RAM has been reported to work fine on a CD/floppy setup with no VPN configurations. It has been reported to run out of RAM with a few active VPN tunnels. Hard drive or CF installs are not recommended with less than 64 MB RAM because you will probably run out of RAM during upgrades and m0n0wall has no swap, so the upgrade will fail.

Hardware Sizing

Keep in mind there is no standard "if you have X Internet connection and Y number of machines on your network, then you need Z hardware". It varies depending on what services you will use, and your Internet traffic characteristics. The one thing that will require significantly more CPU, and/or a VPN accelerator card, is if you'll require more than a couple Mbps of VPN traffic for extended periods.

Some examples of non-encrypted network throughput can be found below, when using the default configuration. Please note that some of these results were reported by users and not officially tested by a developer of the m0n0wall code. Additional information can be found on this FAQ entry.

Some encryption speeds are shown below. Please note that speed will change based on the number of concurrent connections and the type of encryption being used.

Network Cards

You will need at least two network cards in the hardware you are using. Most any PCI based cards are compatible, check the Users Guide for further details. ISA cards are much more problematic than PCI cards, and PCI cards are readily available and cheap if you need to buy some.

For this document, we will assume there are two Ethernet interfaces. You can have additional interfaces installed in the system, but do not configure them during these quick installation procedures. Documentation in the Users Guide will soon be available to assist you in setting up additional LAN interfaces, DMZ interfaces, wireless setups, etc.


You should write down the MAC hardware addresses of each Ethernet interface card if possible. During the configuration of m0n0wall, the Ethernet interfaces will be identified by these addresses. If you do not know them in advance you may need to do some tests to find out which network card has been selected for the LAN and which network has been selected for the WAN. These addresses look like 00:1c:b3:bb:80:42.

1.4.1. Storage Medium

m0n0wall will run off of a hard drive, CD-ROM and floppy, or CompactFlash card. The pros and cons of each follow. Choose the one most appropriate for your situation, taking available hardware and other factors into account.

Hard Drive

Hard drives are readily available, and if you are using a standard PC, you'll likely have one in it. The hard drive installation is remotely upgradeable via the webGUI, so it's a better choice over a CD/floppy setup in many instances. The likelihood of a hard drive failure is pretty high, given that the hardware being used is likely old. An IDE to CompactFlash adapter should be considered where hardware failure cannot be tolerated, since the likelihood of failure is much less with a CompactFlash card. Such an adapter can be purchased new for about $10 USD. PC Engines sells them, amongst other vendors.

CD/floppy Setup

The CD/floppy setup works by booting m0n0wall off of the CD and storing the configuration on a FAT formatted floppy. This is a good solution on systems that you are physically close to very frequently (remote upgrades via webGUI not possible). Floppy disks are notorious for becoming corrupted, so it's even more important to make sure you keep a backup of your configuration. Floppy disks have much more problems in environments that are dusty or dirty, so in those situations we would highly recommend choosing a different setup.

The machine you are using must support CD booting (some 486 and Pentium systems do not). You also must set the CD-ROM as the first boot device in the boot order in the system's BIOS so it doesn't attempt to boot off of the config floppy. Consult your system or motherboard manual for information on how to configure that.


CompactFlash (CF) is a good choice for most any deployment. CF cards are more reliable than hard drives and the floppy drives that hold the configuration in the CD/floppy setup, and are remotely upgradeable via the webGUI. The downside is you might spend more money getting a CF setup working. If you are not using an embedded device with an onboard CF adapter, you will have to spend about $10 USD on a IDE to CF adapter. You'll need to purchase a CF card at least 16 MB in size.

I purchase used 16 MB CF cards off eBay to use for m0n0wall installations, and get them for $5-$10 USD each. You may also need a CF reader on your PC to write the m0n0wall image to the CF card. Those are approximately $30 USD. So you could be looking at a total expenditure of about $50 USD. But most any business environment should be able to justify such a small expenditure for the increase in reliability.